Few animals are as precocious as the horse. Within 20 minutes of birth a foal may stand, and within hours can be ready to run at speeds no human athlete will ever achieve. The relationships between growth, nutrition, bone strength and development, body weight, and the forces applied to bone are all orchestrated in a careful balance when optimal growth is achieved.
About Translations. Our adult skeleton forms from a larger number of developmental elements that are replaced and fuse. In development there are 2 separate signaling pathways for pattern formation and the formation of bone itself.
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports. We have recently reported that human fallopian tubes, which are discarded during surgical procedures of women submitted to sterilization or hysterectomies, are a rich source of human fallopian tube mesenchymal stromal cells htMSCs. It has been previously shown that human mesenchymal stromal cells may be useful in enhancing the speed of bone regeneration.
Haversian canals [i] sometimes canals of Haversnamed after British physician Clopton Havers are a series of microscopic tubes in the outermost region of bone called cortical bone that allow blood vessels and nerves to travel through them. Each haversian canal generally contains one or two capillaries and nerve fibres. The channels are formed by concentric layers called lamellae.
Since most bone begins as cartilage, it must be converted to bone through a process called ossification. The key players in bone development are cartilage cells chondrocytesbone precursor cells osteoprogenitor cellsbone deposition cells osteoblastsbone resorption cells osteoclasts and mature bone cells osteocytes. During ossification, blood vessels invade the cartilage and transport osteoprogenitor cells to a region called the center of ossification.
Grossly, bone tissue is organized into a variety of shapes and configurations adapted to the function of each bone: broad, flat plates, such as the scapulaserve as anchors for large muscle masses, while hollow, thick-walled tubes, such as the femurthe radiusand the ulnasupport weight or serve as a lever arm. These different types of bone are distinguished more by their external shape than by their basic structure. All bones have an exterior layer called cortex that is smooth, compact, continuous, and of varying thickness.
This preview shows page 6 - 8 out of 8 pages. Subscribe to view the full document. I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.